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Odors and negative ions
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Seed and bud storage
A final comment
Australia green rush

Species
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed with nettles in the family Urticaceae or with mulberries in the family Moraceae, but is now considered along with hops (Humulus sp.) to belong to the family Cannabaceae. Whether the different strains of Cannabis constitute a single species (Cannabis sativa L.) or multiple species has been a contentious issue for well over two centuries.[1][2]

Ernest Small conducted a taxonomic investigation of Cannabis and concluded that there is only a single species with two subspecies, sativa and indica, each divisible into a cultivated and a wild variety.[3] According to this concept, C. sativa subsp. sativa was selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production and has low levels of the psychoactive delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production and has relatively high levels of THC.

Botanists Richard E. Schultes and Loran Anderson also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis, and concluded that sufficient evidence exists to support recognition of three species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica Lam., and Cannabis ruderalis.[4][5][6] According to their species descriptions, C. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, Cannabis indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and Cannabis ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia. This concept was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" drug strains from wide-leafed "indica" drug strains.

A recent study of genetic variation in Cannabis supports recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, although the existence of a third species, "C. ruderalis", is less certain. This study assigned hemp (fiber/seed) landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa. Cannabis indica includes both narrow-leafed drug (NLD) and wide-leafed drug (WLD) strains, as well as southern and eastern Asian hemp strains and feral Himalayan populations[7].

Cannabis is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Ghost Moth and The Nutmeg.


Pharmacology
The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, yielding a variety of compounds. The most important ones are the psychoactive cannabinoid Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (??-THC), cannabidiol, and the degradation product cannabinol.


THC
The best known component of cannabis is THC, which contributes such beneficial effects as relaxation, euphoria, induced sense of novelty, concentration of attention, altered space-time perception, alteration of visual, auditory, and olfactory senses, and appetite stimulation.

Cannabis bred and cultivated for medicinal, spiritual, and recreational use typically has a high content of THC, whereas cannabis grown for industrial purposes typically has a low content of THC.


Cannabinoids
In addition to THC, the term cannabinoids includes the non- psychoactive cannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinolic acid. These latter compounds are thought to contribute certain beneficial effects of cannabis, such as cell protection, immunosuppression and anti-inflammatory properties.

They are distinguished as usually containing a 1,1'-di-methyl-pyrane ring, a variedly derivatized aromatic ring and a variedly unsaturated cyclohexyl ring and their immediate chemical precursors, constituting a family of about 60 bi-cyclic and tri-cyclic compounds.


Cannflavins
Cannabis also contains a related class of compounds, the cannflavins. These compounds have been suggested to contribute certain beneficial effects of cannabis, such as analgesia and anti-inflammatory properties, and as such are considerably more effective than aspirin.

These usually contain a 1,4-pyrone ring fused to a variedly derivatized aromatic ring and linked to a second variedly derivatized aromatic ring, and include for example the non-psychoactive cannflavins A and B.


Terpenoids
Cannabis contains many terpenoids also known as essential oils.


The cannabinoid receptor system
Humans and animals have two types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. The activation of these receptors is responsible for several medicinal and psychotropic properties of consuming cannabis. The discovery of these receptors in the 1980s revolutionized the understanding of cannabis pharmacology, illuminating many long-term assertions of its medical efficacy, and suggesting possibilities for cannabis-derived pharmaceutical compounds developed for specific medical purposes.

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© 2018 Cannabis Education Centre.

Important disclaimer:
*
Seeds may only be germinated in countries/areas where it is legally permitted. In the United States & parts of the EU these seeds are for use as a collection piece, pet food, fishing bait or novelty item only. We do not endorse and actively discourage people from breaking their local laws. It is the buyer's responsibility to check these items are in accordance with their localised legislation.
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